Open Journal Systems

Cover Image

Relevance of Epstein–Barr virus infection in the oral squamous cell carcinoma: A meta-analysis

Alberto Rodriguez Archilla, Katerina Lopatková

Abstract


Objectives: The objectives of the study were to assess the main risk factors related to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the influence on its biological behavior. Methodology: A search for articles on EBV infection and mouth neoplasms was performed in the next electronic databases: PubMed (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library), Web of Science, and Spanish Medical Index (IME). From 600 potentially eligible articles, 575 were excluded for several reasons: Articles without full-text availability (201), studies on hairy leukoplakia (256), studies in patients without OSCC (42), studies on malignant salivary gland neoplasms (19), studies in HIV+ or immunocompromised patients (14), and studies with non-usable data (43). Finally, 25 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The statistical software RevMan 5.3 (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) was used to analyze the data. For dichotomous outcomes, the estimates of effects of an intervention were expressed as odds ratio (OR) using the Mantel-Haenszel method with 95% confidence intervals. Results: About 46.3% of oral cancers were infected with EBV. Oral cancer patients had more than triple the risk of being infected with EBV than controls (OR: 3.48, P = 0.01). In contrast, age (>60 years), gender (women), tumor location (tongue-floor of the mouth), tumor differentiation degree (well differentiated), or tumor stage (III and IV) were parameters without significant influence (P > 0.05) in oral cancers infected with EBV. Conclusion: EBV infection may be an important risk factor in oral cancer. Clinical Significance: Specific treatment of EBV infection can improve the biological behavior of oral cancers toward less aggressive tumors.


Keywords


Epstein–Barr virus infections; herpesvirus 4 human; mouth neoplasms; oral manifestations; prognosis; risk factors

Full Text:

Abstract PDF

References


Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015;136:E359-86.

She Y, Nong X, Zhang M, Wang M. Epstein-barr virus infection and oral squamous cell carcinoma risk: A meta-analysis. PLoS One 2017;12:e0186860.

Majumdar B, Sarode SC, Sarode GS, Patil S. Etiologic association between epstein-barr virus and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A brief evidence-based discussion. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017;18:261-4.

Guidry JT, Birdwell CE, Scott RS. Epstein-barr virus in the pathogenesis of oral cancers. Oral Dis 2018;24:497-508.

van Heerden WE, van Rensburg EJ, Engelbrecht S, Raubenheimer EJ. Prevalence of EBV in oral squamous cell carcinomas in young patients. Anticancer Res 1995;15:2335-9.

Cruz I, Van den Brule AJ, Steenbergen RD, Snijders PJ, Meijer CJ, Walboomers JM, et al. Prevalence of epstein-barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinomas, premalignant lesions and normal mucosa -a study using the polymerase chain reaction. Oral Oncol 1997;33:182-8.

D’Costa J, Saranath D, Sanghvi V, Mehta AR. Epstein-barr virus in tobacco-induced oral cancers and oral lesions in patients from India. J Oral Pathol Med 1998;27:78-82.

Maeda T, Hiranuma H, Matsumura S, Furukawa S, Fuchihata H. Epstein-barr virus infection and response to radiotherapy in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Cancer Lett 1998;125:25 30.

Tsuhako K, Nakazato I, Miyagi J, Iwamasa T, Arasaki A, Hiratsuka H, et al. Comparative study of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, Southern Japan and Sapporo in Hokkaido, Northern Japan; with special reference to human papillomavirus and epstein-barr virus infection. J Oral Pathol Med 2000;29:70-9.

Gonzalez-Moles MA, Gutierrez J, Rodriguez MJ, Ruiz-Avila I, Rodriguez-Archilla A. Epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Laryngoscope 2002;112:482-7.

Higa M, Kinjo T, Kamiyama K, Iwamasa T, Hamada T, Iyama K. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) subtype in EBV related oral squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, a subtropical island in Southern Japan, compared with Kitakyushu and Kumamoto in mainland Japan. J Clin Pathol 2002;55:414-23.

Sand LP, Jalouli J, Larsson PA, Hirsch JM. Prevalence of epstein- barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral lichen planus, and normal oral mucosa. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2002;93:586-92.

Shimakage M, Horii K, Tempaku A, Kakudo K, Shirasaka T, Sasagawa T. Association of epstein-barr virus with oral cancers. Hum Pathol 2002;33:608-14.

Szkaradkiewicz A, Kruk-Zagajewska A, Wal M, Jopek A, Wierzbicka M, Kuch A. Epstein-barr virus and human papillomavirus infections and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Clin Exp Med 2002;2:137-41.

Bagan JV, Jiménez Y, Murillo J, Poveda R, Díaz JM, Gavaldá C, et al. Epstein-barr virus in oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma: A preliminary study. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2008;13:E110-3.

Shamaa AA, Zyada MM, Wagner M, Awad SS, Osman MM, Azeem AA. The significance of epstein barr virus (EBV) and DNA topoisomerase II alpha (DNA-topo II alpha) immunoreactivity in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Diagn Pathol 2008;3:45.

Kis A, Fehér E, Gáll T, Tar I, Boda R, Tóth ED, et al. Epstein-barr virus prevalence in oral squamous cell cancer and in potentially malignant oral disorders in an Eastern Hungarian population. Eur J Oral Sci 2009;117:536-40.

Yen CY, Lu MC, Tzeng CC, Huang JY, Chang HW, Chen RS, et al. Detection of EBV infection and gene expression in oral cancer from patients in Taiwan by microarray analysis. J Biomed Biotechnol 2009;2009:904589.

Jalouli J, Ibrahim SO, Sapkota D, Jalouli MM, Vasstrand EN, Hirsch JM, et al. Presence of human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and epstein-barr virus DNA in oral biopsies from Sudanese patients with regard to toombak use. J Oral Pathol Med 2010;39:599-604.

Nola-Fuchs P, Boras VV, Plecko V, Plestina S, Milenović A, Susić M, et al. The prevalence of human papillomavirus 16 and epstein-barr virus in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Clin Croat 2012;51:609-14.

Acharya S, Ekalaksananan T, Vatanasapt P, Loyha K, Phusingha P, Promthet S, et al. Association of epstein-barr virus infection with oral squamous cell carcinoma in a case-control study. J Oral Pathol Med 2015;44:252-7.

Jiang R, Ekshyyan O, Moore-Medlin T, Rong X, Nathan S, Gu X, et al. Association between human papilloma virus/epstein-barr virus coinfection and oral carcinogenesis. J Oral Pathol Med 2015;44:28-36.

Polz-Gruszka D, Morshed K, Stec A, Polz-Dacewicz M. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and epstein-barr virus (EBV) in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in south-eastern Poland. Infect Agent Cancer 2015;10:37.

Bagan L, Ocete-Monchon MD, Leopoldo-Rodado M, Murillo-Cortes J, Díaz-Fernández JM, Medina-Gonzalez R, et al. Prevalence of salivary epstein-barr virus in potentially malignant oral disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2016;21:e157-60.

Kikuchi K, Noguchi Y, de Rivera MW, Hoshino M, Sakashita H, Yamada T, et al. Detection of epstein-barr virus genome and latent infection gene expression in normal epithelia, epithelial dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Tumour Biol 2016;37:3389-404.

Reddy SS, Sharma S, Mysorekar V. Expression of epstein-barr virus among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinomas in the South Indian tobacco-chewing population. J Oral Pathol Med 2017;46:454-9.

Shahrabi-Farahani M, Karimi E, Mostaan LV, Saba S, Yazdani N, Amoli M. Association between epstein barr virus and tongue squamous cell carcinoma in Iranian patients. Pathol Res Pract 2018;214:130-3.

Rahman R, Poomsawat S, Juengsomjit R, Buajeeb W. Overexpression of epstein-barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) in oral squamous cell carcinoma. BMC Oral Health 2019;19:142.

Sharma U, Singhal P, Bandil K, Patle R, Kumar A, Neyaz K, et al. Genetic variations of TLRs and their association with HPV/EBV, co-infection along with nicotine exposure in the development of premalignant/malignant lesions of the oral cavity in Indian population. Cancer Epidemiol 2019;61:38-49.

de Lima MA, Teodoro IP, Galiza LE, Filho PH, Marques FM, Pinheiro-Junior RF, et al. Association between epstein-barr virus and oral carcinoma: A systematic review with meta- analysis. Crit Rev Oncogenesis 2019;24:349-68.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
x
Message