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A literature review of pandemic novel coronavirus disease 2019 and potential drugs treatment

Venkatesh Balaji Hange, Shishir Mohan Devki

Abstract


Background: Coronaviruses (CoVs) belong to a family that comes under the order “Nidovirales.” Nidovirales order includes the viruses that use a nested set of mRNAs for their replication. CoV disease 2019 (COVID)-19 is a βCoV-2, CoV of the same subgenus as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus, but in a different clad. The constitution of the receptor-binding gene region is very like to that of the SARS-CoV, and the virus has been demonstrated to utilize the same receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, for entrance into respiratory cells. There are presently no drugs or vaccinations that are known to be successful for SARS-CoV-2 management or preventing the spread as per various major health officials. Aim: This review describes various drug treatment options available against COVID-19. It focuses on the use virology of SARS-COV2, potential drugs that can be utilized to treat COVID-19 infection, their dosages, advantages, side effects, and indications. Conclusion: As there are no definitive treatment modes accessible to cure SARS-COV2 infection to this date, drug repurposing can provide effective tool to combat against COVID-19 until definitive drugs or vaccines discovered to treat SARS-CoV2 infection. Various antiviral, antiparasitic, and antimalarial drugs, antibodies, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, melatonin hormone, etc., are effective to reduce viral load of COVID-19. Clinical Significance: Drug repurposing and previous or recent clinical experiences with CoV infection provide an efficient weapon to COVID-19 infection. They are effective in not only reducing viral load of COVID-19 infection but also minimize the symptoms related to SARS.

Keywords


Coronavirus disease 2019; Coronaviruses; Outbreak; Respiratory illness; Transmission; Infection control and management

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References


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