Open Journal Systems

Cover Image

Anodontia: Types, possible etiologic, and genetic background in both syndromic and non-syndromic aspect

Sandhya Jain, Divya Bharathi


Background: Anodontia is a congenital absence of nearly all permanent teeth with retention of many deciduous teeth. Developmentally missing teeth may also be the result of numerous independent pathological mechanisms that affect the orderly formation of the dental lamina, failure of the tooth germ to develop at the optimal time, the lack of necessary space imposed by a malformed jaw, and a genetically determined disproportion between the tooth mass and the jaw size. Aim: This review article tells about syndromes that the anodontia associated with and its etiology and its genetic background, anodontia can be isolated anodontia or due to other anomalies as described in the flowchart given. Conclusion: Although the etiology of a single missing tooth is unknown, a familial tendency for this defect is present in many. Graber reported the accumulating evidence that it is actually the result of one or more point mutation in a closely linked polygenic system, most often transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Before treatment of anodontia, we should know the possible background and etiology. Clinical Significance: Wide knowledge of etiology and genetic background before commencement of treatment will help in diagnosis and treatment planning.


Anodontia; Etiology; Flowchart of anodontia; Genetic background; Related syndromes

Full Text:

Abstract PDF


Vahid-Dastjerdi E, Borzabadi-Farahani A, Mahdian M, Amini N. Non-syndromic hypodontia in an Iranian orthodontic population. J Oral Sci 2010;52:455-61.

Larmour CJ, Mossey PA, Thind BS, Forgie AH, Stirrups DA. Hypodonhia--A retrospective review of prevalence and etiology. Part I. Quintessence Int 2005;36:263-70.

Nohl F, Cole B, Hobson R, Jepson N, Meechan J, Wright M. The management of hypodontia: Present and future. Dent Update 2008;35:79-90.

Byahatti SM. The concomitant occurrence of hypodontia and microdontia in a single case. J Clin Diagn Res 2010;4:3632-8.

Parkin N, Elcock C, Smith RN, Griffin RC, Brook AH. The aetiology of hypodontia: The prevalence, severity and location of hypodontia within families. Arch Oral Biol 2009;54:S52-6.

Rakhshan V. Congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia): A review of the literature concerning the etiology, prevalence, risk factors, patterns and treatment. Dent Res J 2015;12:1.

Dali M, Singh R, Naulakha D. Idiopathic nonsyndromic tooth agenesis: A report of rare three. J Interdiscip Dent 2012;2:190.

Whyte MP. Hypophosphatasia aetiology, nosology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2016;12:233.

Cameron AC, Widmer RP. Handbook of Pediatric Dentistry E-Book. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013.

Asokan S, Muthu MS, Sivakumar N. Oral findings of down syndrome children in Chennai city, India. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19:230.

Ahuja R, Shigli AL, Thakur G, Jain U. Dental manifestations of congenital rubella syndrome. Case Rep 2015;2015:bcr201520938220.

Chakravarti A, Jain M. Rubella prevalence and its transmission in children. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2006;49:54-6.

Stamm LV, Mudrak B. Old foes, new challenges: Syphilis, cholera and TB. Future Microbiol 2013;8:177-89.

Tangade P, Batra M. Non syndromic oligodontia: Case report. Ethiopian J Health Sci 2012;22:219-21.

Tavajohi-Kermani H, Kapur R, Sciote JJ. Tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology in an orthodontic population. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2002;122:39–47.


  • There are currently no refbacks.