Open Journal Systems

Cover Image

Object localization technique in dentistry – A review

Lavanya Nanjunda Rao


Background: A dental radiograph is a two-dimensional view for a three-dimensional object present in the jaws. Many times diagnosis becomes difficult for a clinician due to the impacted teeth, supernumerary tooth, or foreign objects. These objects can be localized using various techniques using periapical radiograph, orthopantomograph, and advanced imaging techniques. Tube shift technique, right angle technique, magnification method, vertex occlusal method, stereoscopy, panoramic localization, lateral skull, and posteroanterior view are various techniques which have been used to locate objects. It becomes important for every dentist to know about each technique and its indications. There is a scarcity in the literature which reviews various techniques of object localization. Thus, this article reviews various techniques of object localization in dentistry. Aim: This study aims to review on various techniques used for object localization in dentistry and its indications. Conclusion: Object localization technique is an easy, convenient, cost effective. This article gives an insight regarding various techniques used since past and its applicability in various indications. Clinical Significance: Object localization technique can be applied by a dentist in a day-to-day practice, rather exposing the patient to the advanced screening methods.


Impacted objects; jaws; object localization; radiographs

Full Text:

Abstract PDF


White SC, Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology-E-Book: Principles and Interpretation. Amsterdam: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.

Chenail B, Aurelio JA, Gerstein H. A model for teaching the buccal object moves most rule. J Endod 1983;9:452-3.

Clark CA. A method of ascertaining the relative position of unerupted teeth by means of film radiographs. Proc R Soc Med 1910;3:87-90.

Keur JJ. Radiographic localization techniques. Aust Dent J 1986;31:86-90.

Hitchin AD. The maxillary canine. Dent Pract Dent Rec 1951;2:100-3.

Tsolakis AI, Kalavritinos M, Bitsanis E, Sanoudos M, Benetou V, Alexiou K, et al. Reliability of different radiographic methods for the localization of displaced maxillary canines. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2018;153:308-14.

Goerig CA, Neaverth EJ. A simplified look at the buccal object rule in endodontics. J Endod 1987;13:570-2.

Jacobs SG. Radiographic localization of unerupted mandibular anterior teeth. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2000;118:432-8.

Garg K, Sachdev R, Chauhan S, Mehrotra V, Ishrat S. Review on object localization techniques in dental radiology. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2018;17:72-5.

Chalakkal P, Thomas AM, Akkara F, de Ataide ID. Vertex occlusal radiography in localizing unerupted mesiodentes. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2011;29:260-3.

Turk MH, Katzenell J. Panoramic localization. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1970;29:212-5.

Coupland MA. Localisation of misplaced maxillary canines: Orthopantomograph and PA skull views compared. Br J Orthod 1984;11:27-32.

Freisfeld M, Dahl IA, Jäger A, Drescher D, Schüller H. X-ray diagnosis of impacted upper canines in panoramic radiographs and computed tomographs. J Orofac Orthop 1999;60:177-84.

Abdel-Salam E, El-Badrawy A, Tawfik AM. Multi-detector dental CT in evaluation of impacted maxillary canine. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med 2012;43:527-34.

Walker L, Enciso R, Mah J. Three-dimensional localization of maxillary canines with cone-beam computed tomography. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2005;128:418-23.


  • There are currently no refbacks.