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Relationship and changes of primary and secondary stability in Dental Implants : A Review

Reza Miri, Alireza Shirzadeh, Hamed Kermani, Amin Khajavi


Background: The most important criteria for a successful implant are obtaining and securing the stability of the implant. Various implant systems reach different levels of stability depending on their designs and their arrangement in the bone. Clinical findings suggest that stability of the implant is largely responsible for the success of the implant treatment. Implant stability is categorized into two phases: Initial stability (which is a mechanical phenomenon) and secondary stability (which is a biological phenomenon created by osteointegration). Aim: This paper scrutinizes and critically compares the results of different studies on the changes in stability and the correlation between initial and secondary stability. While most studies suggest a correlation between bone density and implant stability, some researches suggest the opposite. These discrepancies in results are most likely because of the differences in the methods used in these studies. For instance, the method of assessing bone quality is different across these studies. The term “bone quality” is not usually well-explained in papers. Moreover, the aforementioned studies have adopted different methods for measuring initial stability. In addition, the inconsistent results of these studies could be the result of using different tools. It was conventionally believed that the stability of the implant increases during the healing process. Conclusion: Recent studies suggest that implant stability during the healing process only increases for implants with low initial stabilities. Clinical Significance: Loss of stability during the healing can be observed in implants with high initial stabilities.


Implant; primary; secondary; stability

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