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Central giant cell granulomas of the jaws: A review of the literature with its emphasis on differential diagnosis on related lesions

Bhagyalaxmi Praveen Hongal, Priya Joshi, Venkatesh Kulkarni, Prachi Baldawa

Abstract


Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is an uncommon benign intraosseous lesion that occurs almost exclusively in the jaws that has variable clinical behavior and is difficult to predict. The CGCG of the jaws is usually a non-neoplastic bone lesion accounting for fewer than 7% of all benign tumors of the jaws. Before the early 1950s, central giant cell lesions (GCLs) of the jaws were generally diagnosed as giant cell tumor (GCT) usually found in epiphyseal regions of long bones. Giant cell lesions (GCLs) are mandatorily diagnosed in consideration with clinical and radiological features which predicts its aggressive and non-aggressive behavior. The incidence in the general population is very low and patients are generally younger than 30 years. CGCG belongs together with GCT, brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism and cherubism to the so-called GCLs, which can be difficult to distinguish solely by microscopic examination. GCT of the long bones is practically identical with CGCG of the jaws on histopathologic examination and is considered by some authors as a manifestation of the same disease, where age and local factors are responsible for different clinical characteristics. The aim of this review is to focus on general considerations of CGCG along with its management and to differentiate between various centrally placed GCLs which mimic each other histologically and sometimes clinically.


Keywords


Aggressive granuloma; calcitonin; central giant cell granuloma; giant cell tumor; nonaggressive

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References


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